Old Dominion University
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College of Sciences

Department of Biological Sciences

Dr. Kent E. Carpenter

Professor of Biological Sciences


Ph.D. Zoology, 1985
University of Hawaii, Honolulu

B.S. Biology, Marine Biology Major, 1975
Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida

Teaching Responsibilities:

Biol 420/520, Ichthyology
Biol 496/596 , Marine Conservation Biology

Research Interests: I am primarily interested in marine conservation biology, the systematics and evolution of marine fishes, and marine biogeography. My research in marine conservation biology centers on the assessment of extinction risk using the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Criteria.. For this purpose, I have assumed the role of Manager of the IUCN Global Marine Species Assessment (GMSA).The GMSA  is completing the first global review of every marine vertebrate species, and of selected marine invertebrates and plants, to determine their conservation status and extinction risk. The project involves compiling and analyzing relevant data on approximately 20,000 marine species. As a de facto member of the IUCN Species Programme, I am manager of their Marine Biodiversity Unit. In systematics I have a wide range of interests including alpha taxonomy of fishes, phylogenetic inference, and theory of classification. I prefer to use both morphological and molecular characters for reciprocal illumination in phylogenetic inference. I am most interested in sparoid (porgies, emperor snappers, and threadfin breams), lutjanoid (snappers and fusiliers), haemuloid (grunts), and carangoid (jacks) fishes. My marine biogeographic interests concentrate on the origins of biodiversity in the Indo-West Pacific, with a special interest in the Philippines and the wider Coral Triangle. This has led to studies in comparative marine phylogeography and an NSF funded Partnerships for International Research and Education project (www.sci.odu.edu/impa/ctpire.html) . This project has led me to become interested in the use of Next Generation Sequencing and Advanced Genomics to understand fine-scale population genetic structure and marine connectivity that will be useful for marine conservation purposes. In addition, I intend to use these new methods to investigate adaptive genomics and anthropogenic induced eco-evolutionary processes.

Selected Book Authored:

Kells, V. and K. Carpenter. 2011. A Field Guide to Coastal Fishes from Maine to Texas. John Hopkins Press. 448 pp.

Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications:

Cartier, L.E. and K.E. Carpenter, (In press). The influence of pearl oyster farming on reef fish abundance and diversity in Ahe, French Polynesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin.

Willette, D.A., F.W. Allendorf, P.H. Barber, D.J. Barshis, K.E. Carpenter, E.D. Crandall, W.A. Cresko, I. Fernandez-Silva, M.V. Matz, E. Meyer, M.D. Santos, L.W. Seeb, J.E. Seeb. 2014.  So, you want to use next-generation sequencing in marine systems? : Insight from the Pan-Pacific Advanced Studies Institute. Bulletin of Marine Science. 90(1): dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2013.1008. (In press).

Raynal, J.M, E.D. Crandall, P.H. Barber, G.N. Mahardika, M.C. Lagman, K.E. Carpenter. 2014. Basin isolation and oceanographic features influencing lineage divergence in the humbug damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus) in the Coral Triangle. Bulletin of Marine Science. 90(1): dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2013.1017. (In press).

DeBoer, T.S., M.R. Naguit, M.V. Erdmann, M.C.A. Ablan, Ambariyanto, K.E. Carpenter, H. Toha, P.H. Barber. 2014. Concordant phylogenetic patterns inferred from mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA in the giant clam Tridacna crocea. Bulletin of Marine Science. 90(1): dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2013.1002. (In press).

DeBoer, T.S, M.R. Naguit, M.V. Erdmann, M.C.A. Ablan, Ambariyanto, K.E. Carpenter, H. Toha, P.H. Barber. 2014. Concordance between phylogeographic and biogeographic boundaries in the Coral Triangle: conservation implications based on comparative analyses of multiple giant clam species. Bulletin of Marine Science. 90(1): dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2013.1003. (In press).

Willette, D.A., K.E. Carpenter, and M.D. Santos. 2014. Evolution of the freshwater sardinella, Sardinella tawilis (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae), in Lake Taal, Philippines and phylogeography of its sister-species, Sardinella hualiensis. Bulletin of Marine Science. 90(1): dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2013.1010. (In press).

Thomas Jr., R.C., D.A. Willette, K.E. Carpenter, M.D. Santos. 2014. Hidden Diversity in Sardines: Genetic and Morphological Evidence for Cryptic Species in the Goldstripe Sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849). PLoS ONE 9(1): e84719. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084719.

Dulvy, N.K., S.L. Fowler, J.A. Musick, R.D. Cavanagh, P., Kyne L.R Harrison., J.K.Carlson, Davidson L.N.K., Fordham S.V, Malcolm P. Francis M..P., C.M Pollock, C.A. Simpfendorfer, G.H. Burgess, K.E. Carpenter, L.J.V. Compagno, D.A.Ebert, C. Gibson, M.R. Heupel, S.R. Livingstone, J.C. Sanciangco, J.D. Stevens, S. Valenti, W.T. White. 2014. Extinction risk and conservation of the world's sharks and rays. eLife. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00590.


Selig, E.R., W.R. Turner, S. Troëng,, B.P.Wallace, Halpern, B.S., Kaschner, K., Lascelles, B. G., Carpenter, K.E., Mittermeier, R.A. 2014. Global priorities for marine biodiversity conservation. PLoSOne. 9(1), e82898: 1-11.

Bowen, B.W., K. Shanker, N. Yasuda, M.C.D. Malay, S. von der Heyden, G. Paulay, L.A. Rocha, K.A. Selkoe, P.H. Barber, S.T. Williams, H.A. Lessios, E.D. Crandall, G. Bernardi, C.P. Meyer, K.E. Carpenter, and R.J. Toonen. 2014. Phylogeography Unplugged: Comparative geographic surveys in the genomic era. Bulletin of Marine Science. 90(1): dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2013.1007. (In press).

Peters, H., B.C. O'Leary, J.P. Hawkins, K.E. Carpenter, and C.M. Roberts. 2013. Conus: First Comprehensive Conservation Red List Assessment of a Marine Gastropod Mollusc Genus. PLoS One. 8(2) e83353: 1-12.

Borsa, P., D.R. Hsiao, K.E. Carpenter, and W.J. Chen. 2013. Cranial morphometrics and mitochondrial DNA sequences distinguish cryptic species of the longface emperor (Lethrinus olivaceus), an emblematic fish of Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 336: 505-514.

Betancur, R.R., R.E. Broughton, E.O. Wiley, K.E. Carpenter, J.A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J.C. Cureton II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M.A. Campbell, J.A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W.C. Borden, T. Rowley, P.C. Reneau, D.J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia, and G. Ortí. 2013. The Tree of Life and a New Classification of Bony Fishes. PLOS Currents Tree of Life. 1-45.

Elfes, C.T., S.R. Livingstone, A. Lane, V. Lukosche, K.L. Sanders, A.J. Courtney, J.L. Gatus, M. Guinea, A.S. Lobo, D. Milton, A.R. Rasmussen, M. Read, M.D. White, J. Sanciangco, A. Alcala, H. Heatwole, D.R. Karns, J.A. Seminoff, H.K. Voris, K.E. Carpenter, and J.C.Murphy. 2013. Fascinating and forgotten: the conservation status of Marine elapid snakes. Herpetelogical Conservation and Biology 8(1): 37-52.

Adams, A.J., A.Z. Horodysky, R.S. McBride, K. Guindon, J. Shenker, T.C. MacDonald, H.D. Harwell, R. Ward, and K.E. Carpenter. 2013. Global conservation status and research needs for tarpons (Megalopidae), ladyfishes (Elopidae) and bonefishes (Albulidae). Fish and Fisheries. DOI: 10.1111/faf.12017 .

Polidoro B. and K.E. Carpenter. 2013. Dynamics of coral reef recovery. Science. 340 (5 April): 34-35.

Sanciangco, J.C. and K.E. Carpenter, P.J. Etnoyer, and F. Moretzsohn. 2013. Habitat availability and Heterogeneity and the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool as Predictors of Marine Species Richness in the Tropical Indo-Pacific. PLoS One. 8(2): 1-18.

Ackiss, A.S., S. Pardede, E.D. Crandall, Ambariyanto, M.C.A. Ablan-Lagman, N.Romena, P.H. Barber, and K.E. Carpenter. 2013.  Pronounced genetic structure in a highly mobile coral reef fish, Caesio cuning, in the Coral Triangle. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 480:185-197.

Comeros-Raynal, M.T., J.H. Choat, B.A. Polidoro, K.D. Clements, R. Abesamis, M.T. Craig, M.E. Lazuardi, J. McIlwain, A. Muljadi, R.F. Myers, C.L. Nañola, Jr., S. Pardede, L.A. Rocha, B. Russell, J.C. Sanciangco, B. Stockwell, H. Harwell, and K.E. Carpenter. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant herbivores and detritivores of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS One. 7(7): e39825.

Polidoro, B.A., T. Brooks, K. E. Carpenter, G.J. Edgar, S. Henderson, J. Sanciangco, and D. R. Robertson. In Press. Patterns of extinction risk and threat for marine vertebrates and habitat species in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 448: 93-104.

Crandall, E.D., E.J. Sbrocco, T.S. DeBoer, P.H. Barber, and K.E. Carpenter. In Press. Expansion Dating: Calibrating Molecular Clocks in Marine Species from Expansions onto the Sunda Shelf Following the Last Glacial Maximum. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29(2): 707-719.

Sadovy de Mitcheson,  Y., M.T. Craig, A.A. Bertoncini, K.E. Carpenter, W.W.L. Cheung, J.H. Choat, A.S. Cornish, S.T. Fennessy, B.P. Ferreira, P.C. Heemstra, Min Liu, R.F. Myers, D.A. Pollard, K.L. Rhodes, L.A. Rocha, B.C. Russell, M.A. Samoilys, J. Sanciango. In press. Fishing groupers towards extinction: A global assessment of threats and extinction risk in a billion dollar fishery.  Fish and Fisheries. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00455.x .

McClenachan, L., A.B. Cooper, K.E. Carpenter, and N.K. Dulvy. 2011. Extinction risk and bottlenecks in the conservation of charismatic marine species. Conservation Letters. 5: 73-80.

Collette, B.B., K.E. Carpenter, B.A. Polidoro, M.J. Juan-Jordá, A. Boustany, D.J. Die, C. Elfes, W. Fox, J. Graves, L. Harrison, R. McManus, C.V. Minte-Vera, R. Nelson, V. Restrepo, J. Schratwieser, C.-L. Sun, A. Amorim, M. Brick Peres, C. Canales, G. Cardenas, S.-K. Chang, W.-C. Chiang, N. de Oliveira Leite, Jr., H. Harwell, R. Lessa, F.L. Fredou, H.A. Oxenford, R. Serra, K.-T. Shao, R. Sumalia, S.-P, Wang, R. Watson, and Yáñez. 2011. High Value and Long Life-Double Jeopardy for Tunas and Billfishes. Science. VOL 333, 15 JULY 2011: 291-292.

Knapp, L., M.M. Mincarone, H. Harwell, B. Polidoro, J. Sanciangco, K. E. Carpenter. 2011. Conservation Status of the World's Hagfish Species and the Loss of Phylogenetic Diversity and Ecosystem Function. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 21: 401-411. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.1202.

Sanciangco, M.D., L.A. Rocha, and K.E. Carpenter. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Grunts (Perciformes: Haemulidae) inferred using mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Zootaxa. 2966: 37-50.

Short, F.T., B. Polidoro, S.R. Livingstone, K.E. Carpenter, S. Bandeira, J.S. Bujang, H.P. Calumpong, T.J.B. Carruthers, R.G. Coles, W.C. Dennison, P.L.A. Erftemeijer, M.D. Fortes, A.S. Freeman, T.G. Jagtap, A.H.M. Kamal, G.A. Kendrick, W.J. Kenworthy, Y.A. La Nafie, I.M. Nasution, R.J. Orth, A. Prathep, J.C. Sanciangco, B. van Tussenbroek, S.G. Vergara, M. Waycott, J.C. Zieman. 2011. Extinction risk assessment of the world's seagrass species. Biological Conservation. 144:1961-1971.

Campagna, C., F.T. Short, B.A. Polidoro, R. McManus, B.B. Collette, N.J. Pilcher, Y. Sadovy, S.N. Stuart, K.E. Carpenter. 2011. Gulf of Mexico oil blowout increases risks to globally threatened species. Bioscience: 61(5):393-397.

Nañola C.L. Jr., P.M. Aliño, and K.E. Carpenter. 2010. Exploitation-related reef fish species richness depletion in the epicenter of marine biodiversity. Environmental Biology of Fishes. DOI 10.1007/s10641-010-9750-6. 16 pp.(pdf)

Polidoro B.A., C.T. Elfes, J.C. Sanciangco, H. Pippard, and K.E. Carpenter. 2010. Conservation Status of Marine Biodiversity in Oceania: an Analysis of Marine Species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Journal of Marine Biology. DOI:10.1155/2011/247030. 14 pp. 

Carpenter K. E., P.H. Barber, E.D. Crandall, M.A. Ablan-Lagman, Ambariyanto, G. Ngurah Mahardika, B.M. Manjaji-Matsumoto, M.A. Juinio‐Meñez, M.D. Santos, C.J. Starger, A. H. A. Toha. 2010. Comparative Phylogeography of the Coral Triangle and Implications for Marine Management. Journal of Marine Biology. DOI:10.1155/2011/396982. 14 pp.(pdf)

Hoffmann M., C. Hilton-Taylor, A. Angulo, M. Böhm, T.M. Brooks, S.H.M. Butchart, K.E. Carpenter , et al. (180 authors). 2010. The Impact of Conservation on the Status of the World's Vertebrates. Science. 330: 1503-1509.(pdf)

Williams, J.T., K.E. Carpenter, J.L. Van Tassell, P. Hoetjes, W. Toller, P. Etnoyer and M. Smith. 2010.  Biodiversity Assessment of the Fishes of Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles. PLoS One. 5(5): e10769.

Hoetjes, P.C. and K.E. Carpenter. 2010.  Saving Saba Bank: Policy Implications of Biodiversity Studies PLoS One. 5(5): e10676.

Butchart, S.H.M., M. Walpole, B. Collen, A. van Strien, J.P.W. Scharlemann, R.E.A. Almond, J.E.M. Baillie, B. Bomhard, C. Brown, J. Bruno, K.E. Carpenter, G. M. Carr, J. Chanson, A.M. Chenery, J. Csirke, N.C. Davidson, F. Dentener, M. Foster, A. Galli, J.N. Galloway, P. Genovesi, R.D. Gregory, M. Hockings, V. Kapos, J.-F. Lamarque, F. Leverington, J. Loh, M.A. McGeoch, L. McRae, A. Minasyan, M.H. Morcillo,1 T.E.E. Oldfield, D. Pauly, S. Quader, C. Revenga, J.R. Sauer, B. Skolnik, D. Spear, D. Stanwell-Smith, S.N. Stuart, A. Symes, M. Tierney, T.D. Tyrrell, J.-C. Vié, R. Watson. 2010. Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines. Science. 328, 1164-1168.(pdf)

Polidoro, B.A., K.E. Carpenter, L. Collins, N.C. Duke, A.M. Ellison, J.C. Ellison, E.J. Farnsworth, E.S. Fernando, K.Kathiresan, N.E. Koedam, S.R. Livingstone, T. Miyagi, G.E. Moore, V.N. Nam, J.E. Ong, J.H. Primavera, S.G. Salmo III, J.C. Sanciangco, S. Sukardjo, Y. Wang, J.W. Hong Yong. 2010. The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern. PLoS One. 5(4):1-10.

Iwatsuki, Y. and K. E. Carpenter. 2009. Acanthopagrus randalli (Perciformes: Sparidae), a new black seabream from the Persian Gulf. Zootaxa. 2267: 43-54.(pdf)

Carpenter, K. E., A. Muhammad, G. Aeby, R.B. Aronson, S. Banks, A. Bruckner, A.l Chiriboga, J.Cortés, J.C. Delbeek, L. DeVantier, G.J. Edgar, A.J. Edwards, D. Fenner, H.M. Guzmán, B.W. Hoeksema, G. Hodgson, O. Johan, W.Y. Licuanan, S.R. Livingstone, E.R. Lovell, J.A. Moore, D.O. Obura, D. Ochavillo, B.A. Polidoro, W.F. Precht, M.C. Quibilan, C. Reboton, Z.T. Richards, A.D. Rogers, J.Sanciangco, A.Sheppard, C. Sheppard, J. Smith, S. Stuart, E. Turak, J.E.N. Veron, C.C. Wallace, E. Weil, E. Wood. 2008. One third of reef building corals face extinction from climate change and local impacts. Science. 321: 560-563.(pdf)

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. and K. E. Carpenter. 2007. Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with description of a new species from West Africa. Fishery Bulletin. 105:207-233.(pdf)

Carpenter, K. E. 2007.  A short biography of Pieter Bleeker.  The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement 14:5-6.

Iwatsuki, Y. and K. E. Carpenter. 2006. Acanthopagrus taiwanensis, a new sparid fish (Perciformes), with comparisons to Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål, 1775) and other nominal species of Acanthopagrus. Zootaxa. 1202: 1-19.(pdf)

Carpenter, K. E., C. Buchanan, J. M. Johnson. 2006. An index of biotic integrity based on the summer polyhaline zooplankton community of the Chesapeake Bay. Marine Environmental Research 62: 165-180.

Carpenter, K.E. and V.G. Springer 2005. The center of the center of marine shorefish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 72: 467-480. (pdf)

Orrell, T.M. and K. E. Carpenter. 2004. A phylogeny of fishes of the family Sparidae (Perciformes: Percoidei) inferred from mitochondrial sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 32: 425-434. (pdf)

Carpenter, K.E., T.M. Berra, and J. M. Humphries. 2004. The Swim Bladder and Posterior Lateral Line Nerve of the Nurseryfish, Kurtus gulliveri (Perciformes: Kurtidae), Journal of Morphology. 260: 193-200. (pdf)

Carpenter, K.E. and J. E. Randall. 2003. Lethrinus ravus, a new species of emperor fish (Perciformes: Lethrinidae) from the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. Zootaxa. 240:1-8. (pdf)

Carpenter, K.E. (Editor) 2003. FAO Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of The Western Central Atlantic. Three volumes. FAO, Rome. 2127 p. (pdf)

Reed, D.L., K.E. Carpenter, and M. J. deGravelle. 2002. Molecular systematics of the jacks (Perciformes: Carangidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian approaches. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 23: 513-524. (pdf)

Carpenter, K.E. and G. D. Johnson. 2002. A phylogeny of sparoid fishes (Perciformes: Percoidei) based on morphology. Ichthyological Research. 49: 114-127. (pdf)

LoGalbo, A. and K.E. Carpenter. 2002. A phylogeny of emperor snappers based on the Cytochrome b gene. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 54: 754-762. (pdf)

Orrell, T. M., K. E. Carpenter, J. A. Musik, and J. E. Graves. 2002. A Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Analysis of the Sparidae (Perciformes: Percoidei) Based on Cytochrome b Sequences. Copeia. 2002(3): 618-631. (pdf)

Reed, D. L., M. J. deGravelle, and K.E. Carpenter. 2001. Molecular systematics of Selene (Perciformes: Carangidae) based on cytochrome b sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 21(3): 468-475. (pdf)

Krupp, F., M. Almarri, U. Zajonz, K. Carpenter, S. Almatar, and H. Zetzsche. 2000. Twelve new records of fishes from the Gulf.  Fauna of Saudi Arabia 18:323-335.

Bianchi, G., K. E. Carpenter, J.-P. Roux, F. J. Molloy, D. Boyer, and H. J. Boyer. 1999. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Field Guide to the Living Marine Resources of Namibia. FAO, Rome. 265 pp.

Carpenter, K. E. and J. Paxton 1999. The future of ichthyological research in the tropical Indo-Pacific. Proc. 5th Indo-Pac. Fish Conf. Noumea, 1997. [Seret, B. and J.-Y. Sire, eds.]. Paris, Soc. Fr. Ichtyol. pp. 683-693.

Carpenter, K. E. and V. H. Niem (eds). 1998-2001. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volumes 1 to 6. FAO, Rome. pp. 1-4218.

Carpenter, K. E. 1996. Morphometric pattern and feeding mode in emperor fishes (Lethrinidae, Perciformes). In [L. F. Marcus et al., eds.] Advances in Morphometrics. NATO Advanced Science Series. Series A, vol. 284: 479-487.

Carpenter, K. E. 1996. Morphometric pattern and feeding mode in emperor fishes (Lethrinidae, Perciformes). In (L. F. Marcus et al., editors) Advances in Morphometrics. NATO Advanced Science Series. Series A, vol. 284: 479-487

Compagno, L.J.V., F. Krupp, and K. E. Carpenter. 1996. A new weasel shark of the Genus Paragaleus from the Northwestern Indian Ocean and the Arabian Gulf (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae). Fauna of Saudi Arabia. 15: 391-401.

Hodgson, G. and K. E. Carpenter. 1995.  Scleractinian corals of Kuwait. Pacific Science. 49: 227-246.

Carpenter, K. E., B. B. Collette, and J. L. Russo. 1995. Unstable and stable classifications of Scombroid fishes. Bull. Mar. Sci. 56(2): 379-405.

Almatar, S. M., K. E. Carpenter, R. Jackson, S. H. Alhazeem, A. H. Al-Saffar, A. R. Abdul Ghaffar, and C. Carpenter. 1993.  Observation on the pearl oyster fishery of Kuwait.  Jour. Shellfish Res. 12(1): 35-40.

Carpenter, K. E. 1993. Optimal cladistic and quantitative evolutionary classifications as illustrated by fusilier fishes (Teleostei: Caesionidae). Syst. Biol. 42(2): 104-111.

Carpenter, K. E. 1992.  Preliminary observations on the effects of the 1991 Gulf War on fisheries. Marine Pollution Bull. 24(5): 273-275.

Carpenter, K. E. 1990. A phylogenetic analysis of the Caesionidae (Perciformes: Lutjanoidea). Copeia 1990(3): 692-717.

Fast, A. W. and K. E. Carpenter. 1988.  Effects of water depth and artificial mixing in brackishwater shrimp ponds. Aquaculture Engineering 7(1988): 349‑361.

Carpenter, K. E. 1987. A revision of the Indo-Pacific fish family Caesionidae, with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes 15: 1-56.

McCain, J. C., A.B. Tarr, K. E. Carpenter, and S.J. Coles. 1984.  A survey of coral reefs and reef fishes in the northern area, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia. 6:102‑126.

Randall, J. E. and K. E. Carpenter. 1980. Three new Labrid fishes of the genus Cirrhilabrus from the Philippines. Rev. Franc. d'Aquar. 7(1): 17‑26.

Carpenter, K. E. and A.C. Alcala. 1977.  Philippine coral reef fisheries resources II: The muro‑ami and kayakas reef fisheries, benefit or bane?  Phil. J. Fish. 15(2):217‑235.

Carpenter, K. E. 1977. Philippine coral reef fisheries resources. Phil. J. Fish. 15(1): 95‑125.

Contact Information:

Department of Biological Sciences Old Dominion University
Norfolk, VA 23529-0266
Phone: (757) 683-4197
Fax: (757) 683-5283
e-mail: kcarpent@odu.edu