...some scombrid (tunas, bonitos, mackerels, and Spanish mackerels) and billfish (swordfish and marlins) species are heavily overfished and... there is a lack of resolve to protect against overexploitation driven by high prices.

From “High Value and Long-Lived: A Double Jeopardy for Threatened Tunas and Billfishes"

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Publications to Date

The Global Marine Species Assessment (GMSA) Red List workshop methodology follows strict scientific criteria developed by the world’s leading scientists in conservation. Adherence to this methodology has enabled the MBU to publish workshop findings in peer-reviewed scientific journals, highlighting threatened species and species groups, recurring threats, geographic areas of high biodiversity or elevated risk, and further research needs.

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Peer-Reviewed Publications

Shortfalls and solutions for meeting national and global conservation area targets
2015. Conservation Letters. 0(00): 1–9.
Butchart, SHM, Clarke, M, Smith, RJ, Sykes, RE, Scharlemann, JPW, Harfoot, M, Buchanan, GM, Angulo, A, Balmford, A, Bertzky, B, Brooks, TM, Carpenter, KE, Comeros-Raynal, MT,  Cornell, J, Ficetola, GF, Fishpool, LDC, Fuller, RA, Geldmann, J, Harwell, H., Hilton-Taylor, C, Hoffmann, M, Joolia, A, Joppa, L, Kingston, N, May, I, Milam, A., Polidoro, B, Ralph, G, Richman, N, Rondinini, C, Segan, DB, Skolnik, B, Spalding, M, Stuart, SN, Symes, A, Taylor, J, Visconti, P, Watson, JEM, Wood, L, Burgess, ND
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Developing important marine mammal area criteria: learning from ecologically or biologically significant areas and key biodiversity areas
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 24 (2) 166-183
Corrigana, CM, Ardron, JA, Comeros-Raynal, MT, Hoyt, E, Notarbartolo Di Sciarae, G, and Carpenter KE
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Global Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation
2014. PloS one. 9(1): 1-11.
Selig, ER, Turner, WR, Troëng, S, Wallace, BP, Halpern, BS, Kaschner, K, Lascelles, BG, Carpenter, KE, and Mittermeier, RA
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Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays
2014. eLife 3.
Dulvy, NK, Fowler, SL, Musick, JA, Cavanagh, RD, Kyne, PM, Harrison, LR, Carlson, JK, Davidson, LNK, Fordham, SV, Francis, MP, Pollock, CM, Simpfendorfer, CA, Burgess, GH, Carpenter, KE, Compagno, LJV, Ebert, DA, Gibson, C, Heupel, MR, Livingstone, SR, Sanciangco, JC, Stevens, JD, Valenti, S, White, WT
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Facinating and forgotten: the conservation status of the world's sea snakes
2013. Herptelogical Conservation and Biology. 8(1): 37 – 52.
Elfes, CT, Livingstone, SR, Lane, A, Lukoschek, V, Sanders, KL, Courtney, AJ,  Gatus, JL, Guinea, M, Lobo, AS, Milton, D, Rasmussen, AR, Read, M, White, MD, Sanciangco, J, Alcala, A, Heatwole, H, Karns, DR, Seminoff, JA, Voris HK, Carpenter, KR, and Murphy, JC
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Conus: First Comprehensive Conservation Red List Assessment of a Marine Gastropod Mollusc Genus
2013. PloS ONE. 8(12): e83353. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083353
Peters, H, O'Leary, BC, Hawkins, JP, Carpenter, KE, Roberts CM
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Habitat Availability and Heterogeneity and the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool
as Predictors of Marine Species Richness in the Tropical Indo-Pacific
2013. PloS one. DOI: 10.1111/faf.12017
Sanciango, JC, Carpenter, KE, Etnoyer, PJ, Moretzohn, F
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Global conservation status and research needs for tarpons
(Megalopidae), ladyfishes (Elopidae) and bonefishes (Albulidae)
2013. Fish and Fisheries. 8(2) e56245
Adams, AJ, Horodysky, AZ, McBride RS; Guindon, K, Shenker, J, MacDonald TC, Harwell HD, Ward R, and Carpenter K
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The Likelihood of Extinction of Iconic and Dominant Herbivores and Detritivores of Coral Reefs: The Parrotfishes and Surgeonfishes
2012. PLoS ONE 7(7): e39825. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039825
Comeros-Raynal MT, Choat JH, Polidoro BA, Clements KD, Abesamis R, et al.
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Fishing groupers towards extinction: a global assessment of
threats and extinction risks in a billion dollar fishery
2012. Fish and Fisheries. Vol 448. p 93-104
de Mitcheson, YS, Craig, MT, Bertoncini, AA, Carpenter, KE, Cheung, WWL, Choat, JH, Cornish, AS, Fennessy, ST, Ferreira, BP, Heemstra, PC, Liu, M, Myers, RF, Pollard, DA, Rhodes, KL, Rocha, LA, Russell, BC, Samoilys, MA, Sanciangco, J
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Patterns of extinction risk and threat for marine vertebrates and habitat species in the Tropical Eastern Pacific.
2012. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Vol 448. p 93-104
Polidoro BA, Brooks T, Carpenter KE, Edgar GJ, Henderson S, Sanciangco J, Robertson DR.
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Extinction Risk and Bottlenecks in the Conservation of Charismatic Marine Species. 2011. Conservation Letters, 1-8.
McClenachan, L, Cooper, AB, Carpenter, KE, Dulvy, NK
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Featured Article High Value and Long-Lived: A Double Jeopardy for Threatened Tunas and Billfishes. 2011. Science, Vol 333.
Collette BB, Carpenter KE,  Polidoro BA,  Juan-Jordá MJ,  Boustany A,  Die DJ, Elfes C, Fox W,  Graves J,  Harrison L, McManus R, Minte-Vera CV,  Nelson R, Restrepo V, Schratwieser J, Sun C-L,  Amorim A, Brick Peres M, Canales C, Cardenas G,  Chang S-K, Chiang W-C, de Oliveira Leite N, Harwell H, Lessa R, Lucena Fredou F,  Oxenford HA, Serra R, Shao K-T, Sumaila R, Wang S-P, Watson R, Yáñez E.
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Conservation Status of the World’s Hagfish Species and the Loss of Phylogenetic Diversity and Ecosystem Function.
2011. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. In press.
Knapp L, Mincarone, M, Harwell H, Polidoro B, Sanciangco J, Carpenter K.
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Gulf of Mexico Oil Blowout Increases Risk to Globally Threatened Species. 2011. BioScience 61:393-397.
Campagna C, Short FT, Polidoro BA, McManus R, Collette B, Pilcher NJ, Sadovy Y, Stuart S, and Carpenter K.
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Extinction Risk Assessment of the World’s Seagrass Species. 2011.Biological Conservation 144: 1961-1971.
Short FT, Polidoro B, Livingstone SR, Carpenter KE, Bandeira S, Bujang JS, Calumpong HP, Carruthers TJB, Coles RG, Dennison WC, Erftemeijer PLA, Fortes MD, AS, Jagtap TG, Kamal AHM, Kendrick GA, Kenworthy WJ, La Nafie YA, Nasution IM, Orth RJ, Prathep A, Sanciangco JC, van Tussenbroed B, Vergara SG, Waycott M, Zieman JC.
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Comparative Phylogeography of the Coral Triangle and Implications for Marine Management.
2011 Journal of Marine Biology. Volume 2011.
Carpenter KE, Barber PH, Crandall ED, Ablan-Lagman MA,  Ambariyanto G, Ngurah Mahardika G, Manjaji-Matsumoto BM, Juinio‐Meñez MA, Santos MD, Starger CJ, Toha AHA.
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Conservation Status of Marine Biodiversity in Oceania: an Analysis of Marine Species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011. Journal of Marine Biology. Volume 2011.
Polidoro BA, Elfes CT, Sanciago JC, Pippard H, and Carpenter KE.
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The Impact of Conservation on the Status of the World’s Vertebrates. 2010. Science 330:1503-1509.
Hoffmann M., C. Hilton-Taylor, A. Angulo, M. Böhm, T.M. Brooks, S.H.M. Butchart, K.E. Carpenter ,  et al. (180 authors) w/ Polidoro, Sanciangco.
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Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines. 2010. Science 328: 1164-1168.
Butchart, S.H.M., M. Walpole, B. Collen, A. van Strien, J.P.W. Scharlemann, R.E.A. Almond, J.E.M. Baillie, B. Bomhard, C. Brown, J. Bruno, K.E. Carpenter, G. M. Carr, J. Chanson, A.M. Chenery, J. Csirke, N.C. Davidson, F. Dentener, M. Foster, A. Galli, J.N. Galloway, P. Genovesi, R.D. Gregory, M. Hockings, V. Kapos, J.-F. Lamarque, F. Leverington, J. Loh, M.A. McGeoch, L. McRae, A. Minasyan, M.H. Morcillo,1 T.E.E. Oldfield, D. Pauly, S. Quader, C. Revenga, J.R. Sauer, B. Skolnik, D. Spear, D. Stanwell-Smith, S.N. Stuart, A. Symes, M. Tierney, T.D. Tyrrell, J.-C. Vié, R. Watson.
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Featured Article: The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern
2010. PLoS ONE 5:4.
Polidoro, B.A., Carpenter K.E., Collins, L., Duke, N.C., Ellison, A.M., Ellison, J.C., Farnsworth, E.J., Fernando E.S.,  Kathiresan ,K., Koedam, N.E., Livingstone, S.R., Miyagi, T., Moore ,G.E., Nam, V.N.,  Ong, J.E., Primavera, J.H., Salmo III, S.G,  Sanciangco, J.,  Sukardjo, S., Wang, Y., Hong Yong , J.W.
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One-third of reef building corals face extinction from climate change and local impacts. 2008. Science 321: 560-563.
Carpenter, K. E., A. Muhammad, G. Aeby, R.B. Aronson, S. Banks, A. Bruckner, A.l Chiriboga, J.Cortés, J.C. Delbeek, L. DeVantier, G.J. Edgar, A.J. Edwards, D. Fenner, H.M. Guzmán, B.W. Hoeksema, G. Hodgson, O. Johan, W.Y. Licuanan, S.R. Livingstone, E.R. Lovell, J.A. Moore, D.O. Obura, D. Ochavillo, B.A. Polidoro, W.F. Precht, M.C. Quibilan, C. Reboton, Z.T. Richards, A.D. Rogers, J.Sanciangco, A.Sheppard, C. Sheppard, J. Smith, S. Stuart, E. Turak, J.E.N. Veron, C.C. Wallace, E. Weil, and E. Wood.
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The Status of the World's Land and Marine Mammals: Diversity, Threat, and Knowledge
 2008. Science 322: 225-230.
Schipper J et al (Polidoro, B.A. and 100 authors).
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Popular Chapters and Reports

In press. Ocean Biodiversity In: Stone G, Mittermeier R (eds). Ocean Biomes. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Carpenter KE, Polidoro BA, Harwell H, Sanciangco J.

Overview of the Conservation Status of the Marine Fishes of the Mediterranean Sea.
2010. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Malaga, Spain.
Abdul Malak D, Livingstone SR, Pollard D, Polidoro BA, Cuttelod A, Bariche M, Bilecenoglu M, Carpenter KE, Collette BB, Francour P, Menachem G, Hichem Kara M, Massuti E, Papaconstantinou C, Tunesi L.
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2009. Status of the world’s marine species. In: J.-C. Vié, C., Hilton-Taylor, and S.N. Stuart (eds.). Wildlife in a Changing World, Island Press, IUCN Gland, Switzerland.
Polidoro BA, Livingstone SR, Carpenter KE, Hutchinson B, Mast RB, Pilcher N, Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Valenti S.
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2009. Red List Status of Marine Endemic Teleosts (Bony Fishes) of the Philippines. Global Marine Species Assessment for the Coral Triangle - First Philippine Conservation Incorporated. 108 pp.
Alava MNR, Carpenter KE, Palomar MJS, Quicho RFN, Polidoro B. (Editors)
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